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ISSN : 1229-3857(Print)
ISSN : 2288-131X(Online)
Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology Vol.34 No.6 pp.530-542
DOI : https://doi.org/10.13047/KJEE.2020.34.6.530

Appearance Patterns of Freshwater Fish in Central Mountain Area of DMZ, Korea

Abstract

This study surveyed the central mountain area of Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) from March to October 2018 to reveal the appearance patterns of freshwater fish. We collected 7,744 individuals of 43 species in 12 families with skimming nets and cast nets in 12 stations during the survey. The dominant species was Zacco koreanus (30.3%), and the subdominant species was Z. platypus (18.5%), followed by Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (10.0%), R. steindachneri (6.7%), Microphysogobio yaluensis (5.9%), Acheilognathus signifer (4.5%), Pungtungia herzi (4.2%), and Orthrias nudus (2.6%). Among the collected species, four were legally protected. They included Hemibarbus mylodon, which was a natural monument, and Lethenteron reissneri, A. signifer, and Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, which were class II endangered wildlife designated by the Ministry of Environment. Twenty Korean endemic species (46.5%) and one exotic species, Micropterus salmoides, were also collected. Additionally, three climate-change sensitive species, R. kumgangensis, Ladislavia taczanowskii, and Cottus koreanus, and three landlocked species, L. reissneri, C. koreanus, and Rhinogobius brunneus appeared. The dominant species in each station were Z. koreanus (15 stations), Z. platypus (four stations), R. oxycephalus (four stations), and C. koreanus (one station). The species dominance index decreased from upstream to downstream (mainstream of Gimhwanamdae Stream), while the species diversity index and the species richness index increased. The community structure of the rivers was divided into the uppermost stream, upper stream, Han River, and Imjin River. Compared to antecedent surveys, this study collected the highest number of species. Two new species (Sarcocheilichthys variegatus wakiyae and Micropterus salmoides) were caught, while six species (Siniperca scherzeri, Leiocassis ussuriensis, Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis, Rhodeus ocellatus, Abbottina springeri, Aphyocypris chinensis) did not appear. Gimhwanamdaecheon Stream has high biological value with the inhabitation of many species, including species under legal protection and high diversity and richness index scores. This paper also discussed a protection plan for this area.

중부산악 DMZ 민통선이북지역의 담수어류 출현양상

초록

중부산악 DMZ 민통선이북지역의 담수어류 출현양상을 밝히기 위해 2018년 5월부터 10월까지 조사를 실시하였다. 조사기 간동안 24개 지점에서 족대와 투망으로 12과 43종 7,744개체를 채집하였고, 우점종은 참갈겨니(30.3%), 아우점종은 피라미 (18.5%)였으며, 그 다음으로 버들치(10.0%), 버들개(6.7%), 돌마자(5.9%), 묵납자루(4.5%), 돌고기(4.2%), 대륙종개 (2.6%), 등의 순으로 우세하게 출현하였다. 출현종 중 법정보호종은 천연기념물 어름치 1종, 환경부지정 멸종위기야생생물 II급의 다묵장어, 묵납자루, 가는돌고기 3종 등 모두 4종이, 한국고유종은 20종(46.5%)이 채집되었다. 또한 기후변화민감종 (냉수성어류)은 금강모치와 새미, 둑중개 3종이, 육봉형 어류는 다묵장어와 둑중개와 밀어 3종이, 외래종은 배스 1종이 출현하 였다. 지점별 우점종은 참갈겨니(15개 지점), 피라미와 버들치(4개), 둑중개(1개)였으며, 우점도는 상류부에서 하류부(김화남 대천 본류)로 갈수록 낮아지고, 반대로 다양도와 종풍부도는 상류부에서 하류부로 갈수록 높아졌다. 군집구조는 크게 최상류, 상류, 한강, 임진강으로 구분되었다. 선행조사와 비교한 결과, 본 조사에서 가장 많은 종(43종)이 채집되었고, 새로 채집된 어류는 2종(참중고기, 배스), 채집되지 않은 종은 6종(쏘가리, 대농갱이, 열목어, 흰줄납줄개, 왜매치, 왜몰개)이었다. 김화남대 천은 법정보호종(4종)을 비롯한 많은 종이 서식하고 다양도와 풍부도지수가 높아 생물학적 가치가 높았고, 끝으로 이 지역의 보전방안에 대해 논의하였다.

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